Put a small straight jump up that the horse can step over if he refuses make him walk over it and if he goes to pull out try your best to turn him in and make him walk over it again x
Omg yes ( my horse does it all the time ) show him / her a small straight (and maybe put something up against the side(s) of the jump so he doesn't pull out ( after you showed him the jump , approach it slowly and make sure to get a straight line towards the jump
Don't let them pass out the jump turn them back and make them do it again pushing harder towards the jump and pulling her into the middle of it. Even if she gos right up to it without dodging keep doing it and show who's boss or maybe lower the jump and take it slow.
Front of the horse. Also open your hands up and create a barrier with the reins so your horse cant duck out to the side
Practise makes perfect! Although there are a few tips and tricks i know. Keep your leg on! Squeeze hard. Sit deep in the saddle. If the horse refuses and you are in two point you will go superman over the