I would add that there's a lot of new material for shoeing pads. For example you have thermoformable hoof pad (like this: https://www.michel-vaillant-marechalerie.com/en/shoeing-pads/841-3571-second-sole-sport-pad.html#/3469,libelle,pad-thickness-3-mm-width-150-x-length-150-mm-weight-75-g). It adapts to the hoof by being immersed in boiling water, and it doesn't require any injection of silicone in the shoeing pad, which allows a lighter horseshoe.
You can also find aluminum pads, they are used to change the gait of horses, to bring more comfort, by facilitating heel penetration and expansion work. They also eliminates solar pressure and frees the caudal third of the frog which improves proprioception.
Leather and plastic shoeing pads are used to protect the sole and to soften the contact with the ground. Leather shoeing pads aren't expensive, but they don't absorb shocks a lot. Polyurethane pads, are slightly shock absorbing but they are very sturdy, they are used by a lot of endurance riders because of that.
Silicone can be injected in specific pads, in order to strengthen their effect, it's used for specific needs such as improving the comfort on the heels for example 🙂